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Diseases and Conditions Affecting Health of Bones, Joints and Muscles

The health of your bones, joints and muscles can be affected by a number of diseases and conditions, requiring care ranging from therapeutic to surgical. By contacting a ProMedica health facility and seeking an appointment, you can begin the process of receiving the proper tests and diagnosis to begin your recovery.

Many medical conditions can affect your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles. Bone problems may include deformities, infections, tumors and fractures. Joint problems may include arthritis, bursitis, dislocation, joint pain, joint swelling and ligament tears.

Here are summaries of common diseases and conditions treated at the ProMedica Orthopaedic Institute:


While often referred to as if it were a single disease, arthritis is an umbrella term used for a group of more than 100 medical conditions that affect nearly 46 million adults and 300,000 children in America alone, according to the Arthritis Foundation. Osteoarthritis is the most common, and is most prevalent in people age 60 and older. Some forms affect young adults; others, during peak career and child-rearing years.

Find more information at the Arthritis Foundation


Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when you lose too much bone, make too little bone or both. As a result, your bones become weak and may break from a minor fall or, in serious cases, even from sneezing or bumping into furniture.

Find more information at the National Osteoporosis Foundation

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist. The median nerve controls sensations to the palm side of the thumb and fingers (although not the little finger), as well as impulses to some small muscles in the hand that allow the fingers and thumb to move. The carpal tunnel - a narrow, rigid passageway of ligament and bones at the base of the hand - houses the median nerve and tendons. Sometimes, thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the median nerve to be compressed. The result may be pain, weakness or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up the arm.

Learn more about Carpel Tunnel Syndrome at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


Tendons are cord-like structures located where a muscle narrows to attach to a bone. The tendon is more fibrous and dense than the elastic, fleshy muscle. A tendon transmits the pull of the muscle to the bone to cause movement. Tendinitis is often very tender to the touch.

Learn more about tendinitis at the American College of Rheumatology


Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa. This small sac acts as a cushion between moving structures (bones, muscles, tendons or skin). If a muscle or tendon is pulling around a corner of a bone, or over a bone, a healthy bursa protects it from fraying and stress. When a bursa is inflamed, it becomes very painful, even during rest.

Learn more about bursitis at the American College of Rheumatology


Scoliosis is a disorder in which there is a sideways curve of the spine, or backbone. Curves are often S-shaped or C-shaped. In most people, there is no known cause for this curve. This is known as idiopathic scoliosis. People with milder curves may only need to visit their doctor for periodic exams. Some people with scoliosis require treatment.

Learn more about scoliosis at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Common orthopaedic-related diagnoses based on body part include ...

Ankle and foot:

Hand and Wrist

  • Fractures
  • Joint pain
  • Arthritis
  • Tendon or ligament injury
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Ganglion cyst
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Tendinitis




  • Arthritis
  • Bursitis
  • Dislocation or separation
  • Loose or foreign bodies
  • Pain
  • Tennis or golfers elbow (epicondylitis or tendinitis)
  • Elbow stiffness or contractures


  • Herniated (slipped) disc
  • Infection of the spine
  • Injury to the spine
  • Scoliosis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Spinal tumor
  • Fractures
  • Spinal cord injuries

Bones, Joints and Muscles Toolkit

Use the tools below to learn more about how to take care of your bones, joints and muscles.

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