Ascites is excess fluid in the space between the tissues lining the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity).
Portal hypertension - ascites
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Disorders that may be associated with ascites include:
- Cirrhosis and any illness that leads to it
- Clots in the veins of the liver (portal vein thrombosis)
- Colon cancer
- Congestive heart failure
- Constrictive pericarditis
- Infections such as tuberculosis
- Liver cancer
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Protein-losing enteropathy
Kidney dialysis may also be associated with ascites.
Signs and tests
A physical examination may reveal a swollen abdomen, or belly.
Test to evaluate the liver may be done. This may include:
- Kidney function tests
- Creatinine and electrolytes
- 24-hour urine collection
Paracentesis or abdominal tap may be performed. This procedure involves using a thin needle to pull fluid from the abdomen. The fluid is tested in various ways to determine the cause of ascites.
The condition that causes ascites will be treated, if possible.
Treatment may include:
- Diuretics, or “water pills,” to help remove the fluid; usually, spironolactone (Aldactone) is used at first, and then furosemide (Lasix) will be added
- Antibiotics, if an infection develops
- Limiting salt in the diet (no more than 1,500 mg/day of sodium)
- Avoiding drinking alcohol
Procedures used for ascites that do not respond to medical treatment include:
- Placing a tube into the area to remove large volumes of fluid (called a large volume paracentesis)
- Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), which helps reroute blood around the liver
As patients develop end-stage liver disease, and the ascites no longer respond to treatment, liver transplantation becomes necessary.
Calling your health care provider
Anyone who has ascites and develops new abdominal pain and fever should contact their health care provider immediately.
Runyon BA; AASLD Practice Guidelines Committee. Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update. Hepatology. 2009;49(6):2087-2107.
Reviewed By: George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.