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Low-salt diet

Alternate Names

Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction

Salt and Your Diet

Your body needs salt, which contains sodium, to work properly. Sodium helps your body control your blood pressure, blood volume, muscles and nerves, and more. But, too much sodium in you diet can be bad for you. For most people, dietary sodium comes from salt that is in or added to their food.

If you have high blood pressure or heart failure, your doctor may advise you to limit how much salt you eat every day. Even people with normal blood pressure will have lower (and healthier) blood pressure if they lower how much salt they eat.

Dietary sodium is measured in milligrams (mg), and your doctor may tell you to eat no more than 2,300 mg a day when you have these conditions. For some people, 1,500 mg a day is an even better goal.

Limiting Salt in Your Diet

Eating a variety of foods every day can help you limit the amount of salt you are getting. Try to eat a balanced diet.

Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They are naturally low in salt. Canned foods often contain sodium to preserve the color of the food and keep it looking fresh. For this reason, it is better to buy fresh foods when you can. Also buy:

  • Fresh meats, chicken or turkey, and fish
  • Fresh or frozen vegetables and fruits

Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or unsalted. Check all labels for how much salt or sodium foods contain per serving. Also, avoid foods that list salt near the beginning of the list of ingredients, since ingredients are listed in order of amount the food contains. A product with less than 100 mg of salt per serving is good.

See also: How to read food labels

Stay away from foods that always are high in sodium. Some common ones are:

  • Processed foods, such as cured or smoked meats, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bologna, ham, and salami
  • Anchovies, olives, pickles, and sauerkraut
  • Soy and Worcestershire sauces, tomato and other vegetable juices, and most cheeses
  • Many bottled salad dressings and salad dressing mixes
  • Most snack foods, such as chips, crackers, and others

When you cook, replace salt with other seasonings, such as pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon. Avoid packaged spice blends, since they often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. Do not eat foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG).

When you go out to eat, stick to steamed, grilled, baked, boiled, and broiled foods with no added salt, sauce, or cheese. If you think the restaurant might use MSG, ask them not to add it to your order.

  • Use oil and vinegar on salads, and add fresh or dried herbs.
  • Eat fresh fruit or sorbet for dessert, when you have dessert.
  • Take the salt shaker off your table and replace it with a salt-free seasoning mix.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist what antacids and laxatives contain little or no salt, if you need these medicines. Some have a lot of sodium in them.

Home water softeners add salt to water, so if you have one limit how much tap water you drink. Drink bottled water instead.

Ask your doctor if a salt substitute is safe for you. Many of them contain a lot of potassium. This may be harmful if you have certain medical conditions or if you are taking certain medicines. However, if extra potassium in your diet would not be harmful to you, a salt substitute is a good way to lower the amount of sodium in your diet.

References

American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006 Jul 4;114(1):82-96.


Review Date: 10/6/2010
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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