Comprehensive metabolic panel
A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of chemical tests performed on the blood serum (the part of blood that doesn't contain cells).
These tests include total cholesterol, total protein, and various electrolytes. Electrolytes in the body include sodium, potassium, chlorine, and many others.
The rest of the tests measure chemicals that reflect liver and kidney function.
Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20
How the test is performed
A blood sample is needed. For information on giving a blood sample from a vein, see venipuncture.
How to prepare for the test
You should not eat or drink for 8 hours before the test.
How the test will feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Why the test is performed
This test helps provide information about your body's metabolism. It give your doctor information about how your kidneys and liver are working, and can be used to evaluate blood sugar, cholesterol, and calcium levels, among other things.
Your doctor may order this test during a yearly exam or routine check up.
- Albumin: 3.9 to 5.0 g/dL
- Alkaline phosphatase: 44 to 147 IU/L
- ALT (alanine transaminase): 8 to 37 IU/L
- AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 10 to 34 IU/L
- BUN (blood urea nitrogen): 7 to 20 mg/dL
- Calcium - serum: 8.5 to 10.9 mg/dL
- Serum chloride: 101 to 111 mmol/L
- CO2 (carbon dioxide): 20 to 29 mmol/L
- Creatinine: 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dL **
- Direct bilirubin: 0.0 to 0.3 mg/dL
- Gamma-GT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase): 0 to 51 IU/L
- Glucose test: 100 mg/dL
- LDH (lactate dehydrogenase): 105 to 333 IU/L
- Phosphorus - serum: 2.4 to 4.1 mg/dL
- Potassium test: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
- Serum sodium: 136 to 144 mEq/L
- Total bilirubin: 0.2 to 1.9 mg/dL
- Total cholesterol: 100 to 240 mg/dL
- Total protein: 6.3 to 7.9 g/dL
- Uric acid: 4.1 to 8.8 mg/dL
**Note: Normal or “healthy” values for creatinine can vary with age. Normal value ranges for all tests may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
Key to abbreviations:
- IU = international unit
- L = liter
- dL = deciliter = 0.1 liter
- g/dL = gram per deciliter
- mg = milligram
- mmol = millimole
- mEq = milliequivalents
What abnormal results mean
Abnormal results can be due to a variety of different medical conditions, including kidney failure, breathing problems, and diabetes-related complications. See the individual tests listed in the normal values section for detailed information.
What the risks are
There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling light-headed
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Reviewed By: A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, and David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine (2/23/2009).